Anthony Bragalia - ... The US Army has made some rather startling official admissions about the IPU. We learn from information that has been collectively culled from these three documents that:
· The US Army confirms that within their Department of Counterintelligence there was in fact an "Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit" or IPU
· The IPU was "disestablished" in the late 1950's
· The IPU records were "surrendered" to the Air Force (AFOSI) in conjunction with Project Blue Book (confirming that the IPU dealt with the UFO phenomenon)
· The unit was an "in-house project" as an "interest item" for an unnamed Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence
· That the unit (they claim) lacked formal "function, mission or authority"
· That it is only through "institutional memory" that the Army knows of the IPU's existence
The Army's sparse responses to these researchers are disingenuous and they are internally inconsistent. And it was only after repeated inquiries over many years that the Army offered these tacit admissions about the IPU. They concur that there was an IPU- but they minimize its import and claim that they essentially know nothing more about it. They contradict themselves on this by revealing that the files did relate to UFOs (as they indicate that they were released to the Air Force's Project Blue Book.) But they do not say under whose auspice this was done nor how they know this to be so. And they tell us when the unit was "disestablished" but they will not indicate just how they know this to be true. They somehow know when the IPU ended, but they offer nothing about when it was established. ...
The Defense Central Index of Investigations (DCII) is a very little-known arm of the US Department of Defense. It is an "automated control index" that identifies and reports on investigations that have been conducted by all of the Department of Defense investigative agencies. This military and intelligence data center is one of the most complex and comprehensive in existence.
By the early 1980s, the late researcher John Frick of Melbourne, FL had become aware of a computer printout that was generated by the DCII that had related some historical UFO sightings and investigations, including those made under General Douglas MacArthur's command. The listing of sightings had curiously ended the very year that Douglas had left the South West Pacific Area Command. The first line of the short printout read: "01 INTERPLANETARY PHENOMENON UNIT" and the column which shows "DESTROYED" has been left blank. ...
Read more: The UFO Iconoclast(s): US ARMY'S SECRET UFO STUDY: "SOME ARE INTERPLANETARY" by Anthony Bragalia.
The first interplanetary craft on the record was Russian:
In 1959, Korolëv decided to attempt to reach Mars during the orbital opportunity in the Fall of 1960, and to reach Venus in early 1961. Program MV had only one year for massive preparations, including the construction of the 4-stage Molniia launch vehicle, and the 300 million kilometer range Pluton telemetry system on the Crimean peninsula.
Gleb Iu. Maksimov, a brilliant young department head in OKB-1, designed two probes. Object 1M would fly by Mars, and 1V would land on Venus. These were the first spacecrafts to include all the essential elements necessary for a long-range planetary mission:
- Temperature Regulation System
- Solar-Powered Batteries
- Three-Axis Stabilization
- High-Gain Parabolic Antenna
- Mid-Course Correction Engine
- .... (Source: mentallandscape )
Venera 3 was launched by a Tyazheliy Sputnik (65-092B) rocket.
The spacecraft was to take data of the Venusian atmosphere as it descended by parachute to the surface, and then transmit that data back to Earth, giving Soviet scientists information on pressure, temperature, and the composition of the atmosphere.
It contained a radio communication system, along with scientific instruments and electrical power sources.
The 2,112 pound (958 kilogram) spacecraft, designated as Venera 3MV-3 by its manufacturer (Lavochkin), crash-landed on the surface of Venus on March 1, 1966.
Its communications system failed before it could return to Earth any useful information.
Also called Venus 3, the spacecraft does become the first human spacecraft to make physical contact with another planetary body, besides the Moon.
... (Source: cwru.edu)